In this article, a martyr is defined as one who personally witnessed persecution during the Tudor Reformation, especially under Henry VIII, Mary, and Elizabeth, and who ultimately died for his or her beliefs rather than abjure. The main themes discussed were issues of continuity and change: To what extent did Protestant depictions of martyrs draw upon pre-Reformation ideas? Did they signify a break from the past, as proposed by Dickens, or did they represent gradual transition concurrent with Walsham’s theory, where some older beliefs were perpetuated, some were reinterpreted allegorically, and others were abandoned as obsolete? Although firmly grounded in history, the methodology of this article also incorporates elements from other disciplines, especially gender studies, death studies, religion, philosophy, and some aspects of art history. Of particular importance was the language of inversion, where exceptionally courageous female martyrs were portrayed with the masculine virtues of courage, analytical rationality, or self-control. Allegedly negative feminine traits such as cowardice, deceit, treachery, or promiscuity were used to shame and discredit clergymen from rival religious groups. The following article will focus upon a specific model of masculinity used by Catholic, Anglican, and Puritan martyrologists: the representation of martyrs, especially clergymen, as scholars whose rationality, leadership, and willingness to die for their beliefs rendered them superior men to their rivals. Such portrayals of martyred scholars might be age-based, for example, the exaltation of the mature teacher or humble youth, or may feed into the discourse over whether the celibate priest devoted to his books, or the married Protestant patriarch, was more self-disciplined and, thus, better qualified to instruct their congregation.
This research aimed to study the historical background of Buddhist monks in Bangkok and surrounding provinces, examine the current circumstances and problems of Buddhist monks, and integrate the social norms of ordained Buddhist monks for the prevention of self-indulgence and corruption among Buddhists. Data were collected by observation, survey, interview, workshop, and focus group discussion. Collected data were validated using the triangulation method. The validated results were then assessed by a descriptive analysis. The research results revealed that the temples and perimeter examined in Bangkok had been built and developed with the local communities. People wishing to be ordained as monks must be brought to the abbot of a local temple by their father, mother, relatives, sub-district chief, and community leader. They must then ask for permission to be ordained and be prepared for training and learning the scripture and holy Buddhist precepts. They are guided through their ordination by a senior mentor. Once graduated as a monk, some do not perform their duties with the necessary discipline and rigor. For this reason, steps must be taken to ensure that Buddhist monks remain faithful to their duties. Three guidelines are required for the integration of norms in Buddhist monks for preventing and solving Buddhist decadence issues: lifestyle, tradition, and law. Related religious and government institutions may use the findings of this research to prevent and solve Buddhist decadence issues in Bangkok and the surrounding provinces.
This article presents a spiritual understanding of addiction based on Thomas Aquinas’ presentation of the relationship between our sensory passions, intellectual affections, and rational will. While all living things have a soul, it is only the human soul that exists in God’s image in possessing reason and will. The human soul is naturally directed toward a right relationship with God. However, the feedback loop that exists between our senses and reason can lead to a crippling of the will that disables our ability to properly relate to God. Once a person’s will is broken, he or she comes to rest in despair due to his or her inability to live virtuously. This condition is properly referred to as addiction. Though the state should not be theologically rooted, it does retain the requirement of supporting the common good. It is unjust for the state to profit from nurturing and taxing addictions. Sin taxes are levied on products and services that are highly addictive and can disfigure an individual’s soul. Particular sin taxes to be discussed include those related to alcohol and tobacco, gambling, and marijuana.